According to statistics, more than 75% of men over 40-45 years old suffer from prostate diseases. The strong circulation of lymph and blood in the vessels of the lesser pelvis often causes organ swelling and congestion. In addition, the prostate gland is well innervated, so the symptoms of the disease in men include severe pain.
what is the prostate
The prostate or prostate is the male reproductive organ, part of the reproductive system. It is located in the lesser pelvis, below the bladder, it partially covers the urethra and ejaculatory ducts. The prostate consists of two lobes and an isthmus that connects them. In addition, the superior, base, anterior and posterior parts are differentiated in the organ. The shape of the prostate resembles a chestnut, elastic, composed of glandular and muscle cells. The prostate performs three main functions:
- Motor. Prostate muscle cells form a sphincter in the urethra that holds urine.
- Secretary. The gland produces a special secret that provides sperm with mobility, liquefies sperm.
- Barrier. Prevents the spread of infection from the urethra.
Prostate disease in men
Pathologies, as a rule, are associated with damage to the organ by pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms, congestion or neoplasms (both malignant and benign). >Among the diseases of the prostate are the following:
- inflammation (prostatitis);
- benign hyperplasia of the gland (adenoma);
- malignant neoplasm (cancer);
- cystic neoplasms;
- prostatic abscess.
Many factors that create a favorable environment and conditions for the penetration and reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms (fungi, viruses, bacteria) can provoke the appearance of pathologies and signs of inflammation of the prostate gland in men. In addition, they can cause the development of benign or malignant tumors. Unfavorable factors include:
- venereal diseases;
- hypothermia of the body;
- long-term antibiotic treatment;
- stagnation of blood in the pelvis;
- bad habits;
- endocrine pathologies;
- pathology of the reproductive system;
- oncological diseases in history;
- prolonged fatigue.
Symptoms of prostate disease in men
Signs of prostate rupture depend on the cause of the disease, its localization and the nature of the pathological processes. As a rule, the patient complains of weakness, decreased performance, general fatigue and irritability. Also, symptoms of prostatitis and prostate adenoma in men, stones or an abscess can manifest themselves as follows:
- violation of urination;
- erectile dysfunction;
- pain, burning in the urethra;
- temperature increase;
- painful intercourse;
- lack of ejaculation;
- pain in the perineum with sudden movements;
- offensive discharge from the urethra.
The inflammatory lesion of the prostate, prostatitis, is one of the most common diseases of the male genital area. The main cause of the pathology is considered to be a violation of blood circulation in the pelvis, which leads to a sharp increase in the proportions of the organ and its edema. Symptoms of prostate inflammation depend on the type of disease. There are several types of pathology:
- Acute inflammation. Caused by pathogenic microbes (eg E. coli or enterobacteria). Acute prostatitis is manifested by severe pain and pain in the urethra, difficulty urinating: urine is excreted with difficulty, sometimes drop by drop. Some patients report an increase in temperature.
- Chronic bacterial inflammation. As a rule, it is caused by sexual infections (chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, etc. ). Symptoms of chronic prostate inflammation may be mild or absent. Among the characteristic signs, sexual dysfunction (erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation), painful urination (mainly at night) and mucus secretion by the urethra stand out.
- Chronic non-bacterial inflammation. The disease develops as a result of inflammatory processes in other organs (pyelonephritis, cystitis), blood stagnation, heart failure, hypothermia. Such prostatitis often has one symptom - difficulty urinating. Often the result of pathology is a violation of the kidneys, discomfort in the lower back.
Prostate disease characterized by benign tissue growth and formation of nodules that gradually compress the urethra and seminal ducts, the bladder. Hyperplasia can lead to a violation of the concentration of hormones in the blood. Signs of prostate adenoma in men vary depending on the stage of the disease:
- plywood. As a rule, at this stage, men do not notice specific symptoms. Sometimes there is an increased urge to urinate at night.
- Undercompensated. The main symptoms are a feeling of heaviness in the bladder, its incomplete emptying. Liquid during urination is difficult to pass, patients complain of difficult ejaculation.
- Decompensated. It is characterized by a significant decrease in the volume of the bladder muscles and their tone. Also, the adenoma develops chronic fatigue, pain and cramps when trying to urinate. In the absence of treatment, tumor growth, pain intensity increases significantly, defecation may be disturbed due to compression of the rectum.
Prostate adenoma is considered a precancerous disease, therefore, when the growth of this tissue is detected, a biopsy is required to detect atypical cells and ultrasound (ultrasound) to study the structure of the organ in detail. Hyperplasia of the gland, as a rule, progresses slowly, which allows for timely diagnosis and treatment.
A pathological cavity with liquid or prostatic cyst develops under the influence of inflammatory processes of the gland, in which the excretory ducts of the organ are squeezed and the flow of secretion is disturbed. Pathology can be provoked by constant stress, nervous tension, chronic diseases and tumors of neighboring organs, sclerosis of prostate tissues. Signs of cystic formation are:
- burning in the urethra;
- enlargement of the gland;
- decreased libido;
- increased body temperature;
- sensation of incomplete bladder emptying;
- reproductive dysfunction.
The formation of stones in the prostate occurs due to sedentary lifestyle, injuries in the groin area, inflammatory diseases of the organ. Gradually increasing in size, the stones violate the integrity of the ducts of the gland, urine begins to enter the prostate tissue. Stones, as a rule, consist of phosphates, salts of uric and oxalic acid, proteins and epithelium of the ducts. The main signs of pathology include:
- weak erection;
- pain when urinating;
- frequent exacerbations of inflammation;
- pain during ejaculation;
- seals in the gland, and pain when probed.
A malignant neoplasm that develops from the secretory epithelium of the prostate is called a cancer or carcinoma. Prolonged inflammatory processes precede tumor development. The risk group includes men over 40 who abuse alcohol and tobacco. Symptoms of oncological damage to the prostate are nonspecific and are manifested by a violation of the functioning of the organ. In the early stages, the disease usually does not manifest itself. With the development of the tumor, the following symptoms develop:
- pain when urinating;
- pain in the lower abdomen;
- leg swelling;
- chair violation;
An infectious-inflammatory pathology, accompanied by purulent fusion of tissues, is called an abscess. Such a process develops due to the transfer of pathogenic bacteria from the primary focus of infection to the prostate through the bloodstream. For a long time, an abscess can be asymptomatic. The main signs of the presence of a purulent focus in the tissues of the prostate are: >
- fever and fever;
- pain during intercourse, urination;
- excretion of foul-smelling pus in the urine (when an abscess ruptures).
Purulent formation in the prostate gland is diagnosed with the help of instrumental and laboratory studies. In blood tests, an increase in the number of leukocytes, an increase in the value of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate is observed. In the study of urine, leukocyturia and pathogenic microflora are detected. Palpation examination through the rectum shows the presence of a rounded formation.
The main methods of treatment of the prostate
Methods of treating pathologies depend on the specific disease, stage of the course and severity. Therapy for prostate diseases is selected individually, depending on the patient's age, results of laboratory tests, instrumental studies, the presence of concomitant pathologies. Familiarize yourself with the basic principles of treating prostate diseases:
To prevent the development of prostate diseases, you must adhere to the principles of a healthy lifestyle. Reduce the risk of prostate pathologies by following the recommendations:
- Stick to a balanced diet.
- Get regular exercise.
- Take multivitamin complexes, immunomodulating drugs.
- Refrain from drinking alcohol, smoking tobacco, drugs.
- Avoid hypothermia.
- See your doctor as soon as symptoms appear.