Prostatitis (lat. prostatite) is an acute or chronic inflammation of the prostate gland, which is diagnosed in 35–40% of men aged 25–55 years. The older the patient, the greater the risk of developing prostatitis.
When inflamed, the prostate enlarges and begins to compress the urethra. This process causes a narrowing of the lumen of the ureter, as a result of which the man begins to feel a frequent urge to urinate and has a feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder. In the initial phase, prostatitis symptoms may be mild. However, over time, prostatitis becomes the cause of sexual disorders. In addition, the pathology can lead to a number of complications:
- prostate abscess;
Prostatitis or prostate adenoma?
These two diseases are often confused or confused with the same thing. However, they have different natures and flow patterns.
over 45 years old
Nature of the disease
present in the acute form
appears in stages 2–3 of the disease
Weakening of power
observed in both cases
Prostatitis mainly requires drug treatment, while prostate adenoma is a benign tumor that is removed through surgery. At the same time, prostate adenoma can cause prostatitis, which is why any inflammatory process in the pelvic organs requires timely examination and treatment.
Causes of prostatitis
Prostatitis can be caused by:
- Staphylococcus aureus;
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa;
- sexually transmitted infections;
- chronic infectious diseases (tonsillitis, sinusitis, etc. );
- other opportunistic pathogens.
Prostatitis appears as a result of:
- sedentary lifestyle;
- sedentary work;
- long periods of abstinence;
- excessive sexual activity;
- interruption of sexual intercourse.
The listed factors contribute to the disruption of capillary blood flow and the formation of stagnant processes in the prostate tissue.
Prostatitis begins to develop more intensely when favorable factors appear, which include:
- chronic constipation;
- unbalanced diet;
- urological diseases;
- frequent stress;
- intoxication of the body due to smoking or alcohol consumption;
- perineal injuries.
Types and symptoms of prostatitis
According to the form of occurrence, prostatitis in men is divided into:
Acute prostatitis. One of the first signs of the course of the disease is a pronounced pain syndrome, which appears against the background of a rapidly developing inflammatory process. Prostate swelling occurs, triggered by exposure to pathogenic microflora. The condition requires emergency medical attention. In turn, acute prostatitis can take the following forms:
- catarrhal (pain with frequent urination, pain in the sacrum and perineum, difficulty in defecating);
- follicular (the pain intensifies and begins to radiate to the anus, when going to the toilet, urine comes out in a thin stream, the body temperature rises to 37. 5 ºС);
- parenchymal (body temperature rises to 38–40 ºС, general intoxication of the body is observed, sharp throbbing pain in the groin area is observed, acute urinary retention occurs).
Chronic prostatitis is practically asymptomatic or presents mild symptoms. In men, from time to time the temperature rises to 37-37. 5 ºС, there is slight pain in the perineum, which intensifies during urination or defecation. Additionally, you can try:
- weakening of the erection;
- accelerated ejaculation;
- decreased severity of sexual sensations.
In some cases, chronic prostatitis becomes the result of an acute process, when the patient notices the false call improves and refuses to consult a urologist. As a rule, the result of self-medication at home is a series of complications: prostate abscess or adenoma, inflammation of the bladder, loss of fertility, etc.
Depending on the cause, prostatitis can be:
Palpation allows you to determine the size, shape and tissue structure of the organ.
Laboratory research. Allows you to diagnose prostatitis and other prostate diseases in the early stages or in chronic cases in the absence of pronounced symptoms.
- general blood and urine analysis;
- a biochemical blood test is carried out to clarify the picture of the disease and determine the involvement of other internal organs and systems in the inflammatory process;
- PSA blood test;
- urine culture with antibiotic susceptibility testing.
- swab for urogenital infections to detect STIs.
Ultrasound is performed to identify structural changes in prostate tissue and detect neoplasms (cysts, tumors).
TRUS is performed through the rectum and allows you to obtain more complete information about the state of the gland and bladder.
MRI allows you to obtain detailed, layer-by-layer images of the prostate and surrounding tissues in three different projections.
Treatment methods depend on the identified causative agent of prostatitis, so the patient needs to undergo a comprehensive examination.
Treatment of acute prostatitis
Antibacterial therapy. Before prescribing antibiotics, the doctor will refer the patient for tests to identify the agent causing the infection. Then, drugs are selected that will help suppress the activity of pathogenic microorganisms and eliminate the inflammatory process.
Symptomatic treatment. Additionally, the urologist may prescribe antipyretics, analgesics, diuretics, laxatives, vitamins, immunomodulators and other medications.
Surgery. Carried out in case of complications. For example, if an abscess develops, the doctor may perform a transurethral or transrectal opening of the abscess; in case of acute urinary retention, a cystoma may be necessary.
Treatment of chronic prostatitis
Antibacterial therapy. The course of treatment is 14 to 28 days and must be completed even if signs of prostatitis disappear after a week. Antibiotics are used to eliminate infections and suppress inflammatory processes in the body.
Symptomatic treatment. Depending on the indications, the urologist may prescribe analgesics, antispasmodics, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, vascular and other medications to the patient.
Manual or hardware massage. One of the most effective methods of treating prostatitis in men. Prostate massage helps remove stagnant secretions, improve blood and lymph flow, and restore the metabolism of the affected organ.
Physiotherapy treatment. Depending on the indications, the urologist may prescribe electrical stimulation, laser or magnetic therapy. The procedures help improve blood circulation, have an anti-inflammatory effect and help restore reproductive function.
Preventing prostatitis is much easier than treating it later. To do this, simply follow the following recommendations:
Annual exam. It is necessary to consult a urologist every year, even if there are no health complaints.
Sport activities. Regular physical activity helps improve metabolic processes throughout the body, including the prostate.
Refusal of promiscuous sexual relations. Sex is very important for men's health, but frequent changes of sexual partners can cause bacterial prostatitis and related complications.
Balanced diet. You need to eat at least 3 times a day. The diet should include low-fat fish and meat, cereals, fermented dairy products, fresh vegetables and fruits. It is advisable to limit consumption or completely avoid carbonated drinks, fatty and smoked foods, baked goods and seasonings.
Rejection of bad habits. Alcohol consumption and smoking reduce immunity and place additional stress on the body, creating favorable conditions for the development of many diseases.
Questions and answers
Question: How to distinguish acute from chronic prostatitis?
Answer: We must start with the fact that in its acute form the disease usually occurs in people under 30-35 years of age. Chronic prostatitis is considered anti-aging. The disease in its acute form usually manifests quickly with the following symptoms:
- a sharp increase in body temperature (up to 40 degrees);
- severe headache appears;
- the fever begins.
Acute prostatitis is also characterized by constant pain in the groin, back and perineum.
In its chronic form, prostatitis, on the contrary, may not present symptoms for a long time. Over time, the person develops a fever and periodic pain appears in the anus, scrotum, back and perineum.
Urination is impaired and purulent discharge from the anus and urethra begins. Chronic prostatitis also leads to erectile dysfunction. Ejaculation begins to be painful and sexual intercourse is not pleasant.
Question: What happens if prostatitis is not treated?
Answer: If a person does not receive treatment for diagnosed prostatitis, complications and concomitant pathologies may occur
- Vesiculitis. This disease is characterized by inflammatory processes in the seminal vesicles. As a result, pus enters the ejaculate and sperm quality decreases. Vesiculitis often leads to complete loss of reproductive functions.
- Coliculitis. Disease in which inflammatory processes affect the seminal tubercle. As a result, during sex, a man feels severe pain, which leads to interruption of orgasm. Without therapy, the person develops psychological impotence.
- Abscess. It forms in the prostate and leads to intoxication of the body. Its rupture can lead to an increase in symptoms and, in some cases, lead to death.
- Infertility. It occurs against the background of deterioration in sperm quality and inflammatory processes in the testicles, spermatic cord and vesicles.
- Against the background of prostatitis, immunity often deteriorates. Approximately one third of all cases of the disease without therapy end in the development of oncology. Prostatitis should be treated in a specialized andrology clinic.
Question: Where should I go for prostatitis treatment?
Answer: The diagnosis is usually made by a urologist based on the study of symptoms. To confirm prostatitis, several studies are usually prescribed:
- general blood and urine tests;
- STD swab;
- secret research;
In some cases, a biopsy and spermogram are also prescribed.